Prognosis Online Radio
Prognosis Online Radio:
Prognosis Radio is a dedicated live radio station. It is broadcasting for progressive rock music lovers. Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate.
The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. Most prostate cancers are slow growing.
Cancerous cells may spread to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms.
In later stages, symptoms include pain or difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis or back. Benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms.Other late symptoms include fatigue, due to low levels of red blood cells.
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include older age, family history and race. About 99% of cases occur after age 50.
A first-degree relative with the disease increases the risk two- to three-fold. Other factors include a diet high in processed meat and red meat, while the risk from a high intake of milk products is inconclusive.
An association with gonorrhea has been found, although no reason for this relationship has been identified. An increased risk is associated with the BRCA mutations.
Diagnosis is by biopsy. Medical imaging may be done to assess whether metastasis is present. Prostate cancer screening, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, increases cancer detection but whether it improves outcomes is controversial.
Informed decision making is recommended for those 55 to 69 years old. Testing, if carried out, is more appropriate for those with a longer life expectancy.
Although 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to decrease low-grade cancer risk, they do not affect high-grade cancer risk, and are not recommended for prevention. Vitamin or mineral supplementation does not appear to affect risk.
Many cases are managed with active surveillance or watchful waiting. Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or chemotherapy.
Tumors limited to the prostate may be curable. Pain medications, bisphosphonates, and targeted therapy, among others, may be useful.Outcomes depend on age, health status and how aggressive and extensive the cancer is.
Most men with prostate cancer do not die from it. The United States five-year survival rate is 98%. Globally, it is the second-most common cancer. It is the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related death in men.
In 2018, it was diagnosed in 1.2 million and caused 359,000 deaths. It was the most common cancer in males in 84 countries, occurring more commonly in the developed world.
Rates have been increasing in the developing world. Detection increased significantly in the 1980s and 1990s in many areas due to increased PSA testing. One study reported prostate cancer in 30% to 70% of Russian and Japanese men over age 60 who had died of unrelated causes.